Types of Compensatory Damages
You are entitled to compensation if your injuries prevent you from working, causing you to lose income. For example, if you are a landscaper who can't work for a week because you sprained an ankle in an accident, you are entitled to compensation for that week of lost wages. You are also entitled to lost wages if you miss work because of treatment.
If the injury is serious enough and you can no longer perform the duties of your job or occupation, you can sue for "loss of future earnings capacity." For example, if a construction worker who builds custom homes loses a hand in an accident, he or she can sue for loss of future wages. At RobertsMiceli LLP, we work with expert vocational and financial witnesses who can assist in proving the amount of economic loss that will be suffered in the future.
If the accident results in death, a family member can sue on behalf of the deceased person (decedent) for any lost income that the victim would have earned based on the decedent's work-life expectancy. The future earnings are then "discounted" to present value by reducing the total award. Example: Suppose the decedent, who was 55 years old, made $50,000 a year and his or her work-life expectancy is 10 years. A lump-sum payout of $500,000 would be more valuable today than $50,000 over 10 years because you can invest that money. Therefore, the $500,000 would be discounted. Several very complicated formulas are used for discounting damages awards.
A substantial medical bill is compelling evidence of the seriousness of an injury. Cost of medical care is one of the most important elements that we examine when calculating the potential value of a claim. Obviously, the higher your medical bills, the more damages you are entitled to. In addition, the cost of future medical expenses is an important consideration as well. If you are facing years of treatment that could last a lifetime, then the amount of damages you will be awarded will normally be substantially increased. Proving the amount of your future medical care is an area that requires substantial personal injury experience and the use of appropriate experts.
You are entitled to compensation for any damage to your property in addition to your physical injuries. Car damage typically accounts for most property damage awards. In addition to the loss of value or repair costs associated with your vehicle, the contents of your car may also be damaged in an accident, and you can be reimbursed for damage to this property as well.
Property damage valuation is an art form that may require the services of a professional or expert appraiser. If the property has been completely destroyed so that it is of no further use and has no salvage value, the measure of damages can be set at the fair market value of the property immediately before its loss. Property damage is calculated based upon the value of the property prior to the accident, not what it would cost to replace the property.
If the property can be repaired, the amount of damages can be set at the amount it costs to repair the property plus the loss of its use by the owner. If the cost to repair the property exceeds the fair market value of the property before loss, the damages can be limited to the fair market value. In addition to the cost to repair or replace plus loss of use, interest and loss of profits may also be added as elements of damages. Finally, while your vehicle is being repaired you may be entitled to recover the costs of renting a car or other substitute transportation.
The most personal, and often the most difficult-to-prove element of all damages is the pain and suffering that an injured accident victim has to endure. At RobertsMiceli LLP, we take our job of demonstrating this aspect of your damages very seriously. Though pain can be felt only by you, it can be evidenced by reference to the use of painkillers, the frequency and length of your treatment, the types of treatment you have undergone, and the time it will take you to recover from your injuries. An attorney from RobertsMiceli LLP will interview you, your spouse if any, and any other witnesses who were familiar with your lifestyle before the accident so that it can be measured in comparison to your lifestyle after the accident. It is important to us to make sure that each and every aspect of your lifestyle that has been compromised is made known to the jury, and proven through witness testimony and other evidence. Your loss of enjoyment of life is a compelling element of your claim that requires careful attention and experienced counsel.
Obviously, a person who undergoes several surgeries followed by excruciating physical therapy for a shattered knee will likely receive higher damages for pain and suffering than an accident victim who does not need surgery or physical therapy. Similarly, an injury that takes one year to heal will be worth more in damages than one that takes only two months. In cases where there is a permanent injury, RobertsMiceli LLP will likely employ an expert to testify on your behalf as to the limitations imposed by the permanent condition and the appropriate value of compensation that may be appropriate. A permanent disability will normally increase the damages awarded to you significantly. Pennsylvania, however, prohibits recovery of damages for pain and suffering in wrongful death cases.
Though mental anguish and emotional distress are often confused with pain and suffering, they are not the same. It can be quite normal for an accident victim to experience some sort of emotional distress in addition to physical pain. Fear, anxiety, shock, grief, mental suffering, shame and embarrassment are some of the symptoms of mental anguish that can normally result from a traumatic accident.
Example: Suppose a mother is standing at the doorway to her home watching her two children get the mail from the mailbox at the street. The mother witnesses a car hit her children, but there is nothing she can do. The terror she experiences before the impact is considered mental anguish. States have limited who can sue for emotional distress and under what circumstances. The barriers are to prevent a possible proliferation of personal injury lawsuits based solely on mental anguish. In some states, if you are not the injured victim suing for emotional distress you have to pass what is known as the "zone of danger" test. Using the example above, the mother would not be able to sue for mental anguish because she was not close enough to the zone of danger that she could have been hurt. In response to this problem, Pennsylvania has adopted a rule that allows a close relative to recover for mental anguish in an example such as the one above if he or she witnesses the event as it is happening. In the example above, the injured child's father cannot sue for emotional distress if the mother later tells him what she witnessed, because he was not present during the accident. Sinn v. Burd, 486 Pa. 146, 404 A.2d 672 (1979).
A serious accident can leave a victim in serious pain and permanently disabled. Though these types of damages are separately compensable, personal injury laws also permit injured victims or the relatives of a decedent to sue for "loss of consortium" – the loss of love and companionship as a result of an accident. A severe and disabling injury can affect a personal relationship in a variety of ways, as where many of the romantic and recreational activities that two spouses once enjoyed together may no longer be possible.
Loss of consortium would also apply if an accident left a husband or wife unable to perform chores that the spouse relied upon. Though this type of recovery usually is less than the amount of recovery awarded for pain and suffering, loss of consortium can be a major element of damages in extraordinary circumstances, as where an accident causes a victim to become paraplegic or otherwise totally disabled.
In addition to lost wages and future lost wages, you can seek compensation for any lost business opportunity resulting from an accident. It is important to use caution when presenting this type of damages to a jury. For example, not every child who suffered a facial scar in an accident "would have been a movie star." Only where there is ample proof of a lost opportunity should it be presented, otherwise speculative claims may be rejected by a jury and hurt your credibility for recovery on other, more concrete claims.
- Brief Overview of Personal Injury Law
- Types of Negligence
- Negligence FAQ
- Toxic Torts
- Intentional Torts
- Personal Injury Damages
- Types of Damages
- Types of Compensatory Damages
- Amount of Damages
- Factors Affecting Damages Awards